Sunday, September 25, 2011

Herman Cain is The Darkest White Man I Have Ever Seen

If you are to believe Morgan Freeman and the liberals, Herman Cain is the darkest white man I have ever seen!  I mean, Herman Cain can’t be black!  Unless, Morgan Freeman was wrong!  Nah, Morgan Freeman has to be right. "[The tea party is] going to do whatever we need to do to get this black man -- we can -- we're going to do whatever we can to get this black man out of here.  It is a racist thing." 


Morgan Freeman is charismatic actor and has a marvelous voice.  I enjoy his work, he plays likeable characters.  Here his is as President Beck in "Deep Imact."


Morgan Freeman is also the narrator for the upcoming movie "We the People" about the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.



He has played presidents, God, is narrating the "We the People," and is the star of the wonderful series “Through the Wormhole.”  All his characters are trust worthy and/or patriotic.  His work enthuses people and instills faith in him and people believe what he says.  He couldn't be wrong, could he, not honorable, decent Morgan Freeman?  The tea party can’t want Obama out of office for something silly like his policies, his leadership or his character. It can’t be because of the disgraceful way he has conducted himself. It can’t be the financial disaster that is the country, the Solyndra scandal, the fast and furious scandal, the Gibson guitar scandal, the joke of a jobs bill or the silly repetitive speeches he makes. It has to be because Obama is black, because the tea party is racist.

Maybe it’s just a tea party diversionary tactic of some sort, but it seems like the bigoted tea party is beginning to support Herman Cain, a black man.  Herman Cain did glowingly in the debate in Orlando, people really seemed fond his debate style and they applauded the fact that he beat cancer. 


On Friday I was witness to the audience reaction to his speech.  The audience was laughing at his jokes and applauding his remarks, he was a real crowd pleaser and got a rousing standing ovation.  All those racist tea party people were standing up for Herman Cain, a black man.


During the final panel of the day the panel was discussing the debate and Presidential election.  Herman Cain he got the second biggest applause. The honor of the biggest applause went to Marco Rubio!  Yes, a Hispanic got the most applause followed second by Herman Cain. Surely that was just the thousand or so color blind tea partiers in attendance at that panel.  Surely it was just some kind of misguided appreciation?  Maybe they just like his big, blue bus.


Surely those racist tea party people won’t vote for Herman Cain. Today was the straw poll in Florida and Herman Cain handily beat Perry and Romney and all the other white candidates. That must be a fluke, some sort of error. 

Is Herman Cain himself some sort of racist?  Herman Cain went to Israel, talked to Israeli leaders and is an avid supporter of Israel and the Jews.The Jews!!! Herman Cain likes Jews!!! Racist!!


Those racist tea party people, they applaud Israel, applaud Jews, applaud Hispanic Marco Rubio and applaud Herman Cain. It must be some kind of devious plot, a conspiracy to throw the liberals off!  They couldn't just be Patriotic Americans who want to protect their country and who aren't racist, could they?

Could the problem with liberal propaganda that is that it’s all lies? If so, would Morgan Freeman  realize his mistaken belief and make amends in that beautiful voice of his, the one everyone trusts. If he continues to believe the tea party is racist then Morgan Freeman, himself, will have to call Florida straw poll winner Herman Cain, the darkest white man he has ever seen.

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Constitutional Awareness

September 17, 2011 is Constitution Day. To honor this day everybody needs to stop what they are doing and READ THE CONSTITUTION! This is THE most important thing that an American can read!!! Pass this on so that others will also have this opportunity.

For those who think the Constitution is too long to read, it is not! It is posted, in its entirety, including the Bill of Rights/Amendments, in my blog (below) or linked here to the National Archives site (with the additional link to The Declaration of Independence)

NOTE: IF YOU ARE VIEWING ON A SMART PHONE, CLICK THE LINKS FOR THE CONSTITUTION FOR BETTER VIEWING

The Constitution: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html
Bill of Rights: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
Amendments 11-27: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html
The Declaration of Independence:


I have very strong views about The Constitution and its applications (or lack thereof) and I hope that you will take the time to read them; I do, however, give you permission to skip over my remarks (yet hopefully read the comments of some of our great American leaders) if it will get you to read The Constitution. Even if you disagree with my remarks, click the links (from the National Archives) and read The Constitution/Bill of Rights/Amendments for yourself. The most important thing is that you read the Constitution!

"The Constitution is the guide I will never abandon." ~ George Washington

It was the design of our founding fathers that for our Country to run properly, we must abide by the Constitution of the United States. These men were ahead of their time and the Constitution and Bill of Rights are more relevant today than ever before. They allow for us, as citizens to be free and independent. The Constitution is a masterpiece of ingenuity. It sets forth the roles of all parts of Government as well as its citizens. It irritates me that there are those in the Federal Government that spit on the Constitution and veer away from it and not allowing it to do what it way designed to do. To reassign roles, i.e. allow Federal Government to take over the roles of the State/Local Government as well as taking over the roles of its citizens has proven to be disastrous; this is what is meant by "Big Government.”

"The liberties of our country, the freedoms of our civil Constitution are worth defending at all hazards; it is our duty to defend them against all attacks. We have received them as a fair inheritance from our worthy ancestors. They purchased them for us with toil and danger and expense of treasure and blood. It will bring a mark of everlasting infamy on the present generation – enlightened as it is – if we should suffer them to be wrested from us by violence without a struggle, or to be cheated out of them by the artifices of designing men." ~ Samuel Adams”

The Government has taken on and financed things that don't belong being financed by the Federal Government. This is why our Government is in the financial crisis it is in. It's not that some of the causes the Federal Government funds aren't good; it's just not the design of the hierarchy of our Country for the Federal Government to take on that role. The Government should focus it's spending on the defense and protection of our Country and the general cost of the Government doing business. That's all. The other spending should be financed by State/local Governments and the private sector. The Federal Government butts its nose into affairs that should be handled on the State/Local Government level. There is no way the Federal Government has its hand on the pulse of what is going on in my local or state community. It is in the best interest of the citizens if the Federal Government allows the State and Local Governments to assume their roles and do their jobs. The Federal Government has no right to belittle the State and Local Governments and their citizens by telling them they know better.

“Don't interfere with anything in the Constitution. That must be maintained, for it is the only safeguard of our liberties.” ~ Abraham Lincoln

I don't understand why people insist on telling the Federal Government to raise taxes. They want the Federal Government to take more of their hard earned money for programs that the Government should not be involved in. Noted, there must be some taxation from the Federal Government to do what they are charged with doing as outlined in the Constitution in order to run and defend our country, but that should be the limit to taxation on the Federal level. Other than that, the people should have the right to put their money toward programs of their choosing, and this could be done on the local level or through the private sector. These people don’t understand that they could have the choice to choose which programs their money goes to. Get the Government out of involvement in these programs and put them in the hands of the people. The ones the people really want will be able to obtain the money to sustain from private individuals/corporations. Why are we allowing the Government to invest in dead end companies, programs and schemes? It's our money; if the money was in our own hands, is this the way we would choose to invest it? Let's invest our money (by not allowing unnecessary tax burden) to companies, large and small who can provide long term jobs to our citizens. Investing money in temporary jobs bridges and construction is not going to help mainstream people get permanent jobs. How many people do you know who can build a bridge?

“The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people; it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government - lest it come to dominate our lives and interests. ~ Patrick Henry

Then there are things that the Federal Government that is involved in that should be left up to the private sector and individual citizens. It irritates me that the Federal Government takes MY money (Social Security) and tells me that they know how to handle it better than I do. If Social Security isn't revamped, I may not see any of MY money that was taken from me with the promise it would be there when I retire. I guarantee that the money I have put aside by myself will, at the very least, be there (and probably with interest). The Federal Government should not have been involved in individual's retirement savings to begin with. Since it's too late for that, I can only hope that there is some revamping of the system so that those who have put in will get their money back and those that wish to invest their money themselves will be able to. The revamping of Social Security is difficult since the Federal Government didn't leave the Social Security money alone as it was supposed to. Another thing the Federal Government should not be involved in and investing money in is socialized medicine. Medicine is not the job of the Federal Government. People should have the choice for their own health care and how to pay for it. We need to return to the day of neighbor helping neighbor, not forced health care. Ronald Reagan on Socialized health care: http://youtu.be/AYrlDlrLDSQ
“Ours was the first revolution in the history of mankind that truly reversed the course of government, and with three little words: "We the People." "We the People" tell the Government what to do, it doesn't tell us. "We the people" are the driver - the Government is the car. And we decide where it should go, and by what route, and how fast. Almost all the world's constitutions are documents in which governments tell the people what their privileges are. Our Constitution is a document in which "We the People" tell the Government what it is allowed to do. "We the people" are free.” ~ Ronald Reagan

“The Constitution of most of our states (and of the United States) assert that all power is inherent in the people; that they may exercise it by themselves; that it is their right and duty to be at all times armed and that they are entitled to freedom of person, freedom of religion, freedom of property, and freedom of press.” ~ Thomas Jefferson

We must demand that the Federal Government give the State and Local Government back the power they deserve and are quite capable of handling themselves.

We must demand that the Federal Government give citizens the power to run their own lives. Big "butt in" Federal Government is not the way the Constitution was designed. We must demand control of our money, to spend it how we like and to support causes and projects we deem worthy, not what the Federal Government tells us we should think is worthy. We must demand that the Government let us raise our own children and trust that we know best, and that includes letting us decide what they eat. In addition, there are many other things that Government should leave to the private sector/citizens such as Religion, Religious observation, marriage and our Second Amendment right to bear arms; to protect our homes, our property and our families.

“The Constitution preserves the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation where the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.” ~ James Madison

We as citizens must demand that our Federal Government allow us the rights that we have, as citizens of the United States of America, as described in the Constitution and Bill of Rights:

The Constitutional Convention and creation of the Constitution:
“The original states, except Rhode Island, collectively appointed 70 individuals to the Constitutional Convention, but a number did not accept or could not attend. Those who did not attend included Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams and, John Hancock.
In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution. The delegates ranged in age from Jonathan Dayton, aged 26, to Benjamin Franklin, aged 81, who was so infirm that he had to be carried to sessions in a sedan chair.” http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers.html

The Constitution of the United States was signed on February 21, 1787

The Constitution of the United States:
A Transcription
Note: The following text is a transcription of the Constitution in its original form.
(Items that are in blue have since been amended or superseded. If you go to
the website, you will be able to hyperlink from the original to the change/amendment. 
All the amendments are listed below.)
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,
establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common
defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty
to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution
for the United States of America.
Article. I.
Section. 1.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United
States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section. 2.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every
second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State
shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch
of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of
 twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who
shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several                          States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective             Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free               Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding              Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall
be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United
States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they
shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for
every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall
be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence
Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four,
 Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina
five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive
Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers;
and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
Section. 3.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each
State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall
have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election,
they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the
Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year,
of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class
at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess                     of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary            Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill                         such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty
Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not,
elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but
shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore,
in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of
President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting
for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President
of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person
shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from
Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit
under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and
subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
Section. 4.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and
Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof;
but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations,
except as to the Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a
different Day.
Section. 5.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications
of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do
Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and
under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members
for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time
publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy;
and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall,
at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in
which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section. 6.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services,
to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They
shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged
from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and
in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either
House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected,
be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which
shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased
during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall
be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
Section. 7.
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but
the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate,
shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States:
If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to
 that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large
on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the
Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if
approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such
Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the
 Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the
Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the
President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented
to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall
not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of
Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and
 before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the
Case of a Bill.
Section. 8.
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and
 Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general
Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be
uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States,
and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the
subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the
Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current
Coin of the United States;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited
Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective
Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and
Offences against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules
concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall
be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing
such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States,
reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and
the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by
Congress; To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States,
and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the
United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the
Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the
Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful
Buildings;--And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper
for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers
vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in
any Department or Officer thereof.
Section. 9.
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing
shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the
Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed
on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when
in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the                    Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the
Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one
State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations
made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and
Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding
any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the
Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
Section. 10.
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters
of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing
but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of
Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts,
or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties
on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing
it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by
any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and
Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage,
keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement
or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War,
unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.
Section. 1.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of
America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together
with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct,
a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives
to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or
Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United
States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two                Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with           themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the            Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit               sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the                    President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of                        the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and                the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of  Votes              shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of                            Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and                  have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall                 immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person                            have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall                             in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be          taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum                   for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the                 States, and a Majority of all the States shall be
necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person         having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.                    But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall                chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on
which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the
United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the
time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President;
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the
Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation,                or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same                           shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the                  Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and                      Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer           shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation,
which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he
shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath
or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability,
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Section. 2.
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United
States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service
of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal
Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves
and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of
Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to
make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall
nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court,
and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress
may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper,
in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during
the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the
End of their next Session.
Section. 3.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the
Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with
Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as
he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers;
he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission
all the Officers of the United States.
Section. 4.
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall
be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason,
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.
Section. 1.
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court,
and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their
Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their
Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their
Continuance in Office.
Section. 2.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising
under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or
which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors,
other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime
Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--
to Controversies between two or more States;-- between a State and                              Citizens of another State,--between Citizens of different States,--between Citizens
of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between
a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and
those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original
Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall
have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions,
and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury;
and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have
been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be
at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Section. 3.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against
them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person 
shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the
same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no
Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during
the Life of the Person attainted.

Article. IV.
Section. 1.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records,
and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general
Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall
be proved, and the Effect thereof.
Section. 2.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of
Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall
flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the
executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof,                         escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein,                    be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim                     of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
Section. 3.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State
shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State
be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the
Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and
Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice
any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Section. 4.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican
Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature
cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

Article. V.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary,
shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the
Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and
Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three
fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the
one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided
that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight
 hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the
Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be
deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI.
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of
this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution,
as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in
Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the
Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the
Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or
Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the
United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation,
to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a
Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII.
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the
Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first
Page, the Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line
of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second
 and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between
the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.
Attest William Jackson Secretary
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the
Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred  and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of
America the  Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our
Names,
Geo. Washington
Presidt and deputy from Virginia
Delaware
Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom
Maryland
James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll
Virginia
John Blair
James Madison Jr.
North Carolina
Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson
South Carolina
J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler
Georgia
William Few
Abr Baldwin
New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman
Massachusetts
Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King
Connecticut
Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman
New York
Alexander Hamilton
New Jersey
Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton
Pennsylvania
B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris


The Preamble to The Bill of Rights
Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting
the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse
of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added:
And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best
ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the
following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as
amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles,
when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents
and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United
States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of
the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
Note: The following text is a transcription of the first ten amendments to the
Constitution in their original form. These amendments were ratified
December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the "Bill of Rights."

Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition
the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the
right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent
of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and
no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons
or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime,
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising
in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice
put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be
a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without
just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall
have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by
law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted
with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses
in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars,
the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be
otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules
of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and
unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to
deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


Amendments 11-27
Note: The capitalization and punctuation in this version is from the enrolled original
of the Joint Resolution of Congress proposing the Bill of Rights, which is on
permanent display in the Rotunda of the National Archives Building, Washington,
D.C.
The Constitution: Amendments 11-27
Constitutional Amendments 1-10 make up what is known as The Bill of Rights.
Amendments 11-27 are listed below.

AMENDMENT XI Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.
Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit
in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by
Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

AMENDMENT XII Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.
Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the
12th amendment.
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President
and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the
same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted
for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President,
and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of
all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each,
which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; --
the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House
of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be
counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for
President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then
from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President,
the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having
one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary
to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth
day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as
President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the
President. --]*   The person having the greatest number of votes as
Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority
of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority,
then from the two highest numbers on the list,
the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of
the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person
constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of
Vice-President of the United States.
*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment.

AMENDMENT XIII Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified
December 6, 1865.
Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded
by the 13th amendment.
Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof
the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any
place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the
14th amendment.
Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No
State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities
of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction
the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding
Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors
for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress,
the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one
years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be
reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President
and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress,
or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or
as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same,
or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of
two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States
nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss
or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall
be held illegal and void.
Section 5.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the
provisions of this article.
*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment.

AMENDMENT XV Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified
February 3, 1870.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged
by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude--
Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XVI Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard
to any census or enumeration.

AMENDMENT XVII Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th
amendment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator
shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate,
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill
such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower
the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill
the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
Constitution.

AMENDMENT XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917.
Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.
Section 1.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale,
or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into,
or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States,
as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

AMENDMENT XIX
 Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

AMENDMENT XX Passed by Congress March 2, 1932.
Ratified January 23, 1933.
Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section
2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was
 superseded by section 3.
Section 1.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the
20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon
on the 3d
day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this
article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then
begin.
Section 2.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting
shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law
appoint a different day.
Section 3.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President
elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President
shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or
if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall
act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law
provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who
is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President
or Vice President shall have qualified.
Section 4.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons
from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the
right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of
any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever
the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
Section 5.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification
of this article.
Section 6.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within
seven years from the date of its submission.

AMENDMENT XXI Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5,
1933.
Section 1.
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is
hereby repealed.
Section 2.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the
United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of
the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the
Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the
States by the Congress.

AMENDMENT XXII Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February
27, 1951.
Section 1.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than
two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be
elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply
to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by
Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of
 President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article
becomes operative from  holding the office of President or acting as President
during the remainder of such term.
Section 2.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within
seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

AMENDMENT XXIII Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29,
1961.
Section 1.
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint
in such manner as Congress may direct:
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number
of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled
if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be
in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the
purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed
by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided
by the twelfth article of amendment.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XXIV Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January
23, 1964.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election
for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for
Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XXV Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10,
1967.
Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th
amendment.
Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation,
the Vice President shall become President.
Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President
shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a
majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he
is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits
to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of
the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,
transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume
the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no
inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the
Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive
department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit
within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker
of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President
is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress
shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if
not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the
latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one
days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of
both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

AMENDMENT XXVI Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1,
1971.
Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1
of the 26th amendment.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older,
to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of age.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

AMENDMENT XXVII Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7,
1992.
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall
have intervened.